Woodstock Institute’s research on racial and economic disparities in Chicago’s vehicle ticketing practices is featured in this article from the Chicago Reader:

In “The Debt Spiral,” a 2018 report from Chicago’s Woodstock Institute (a nonprofit research and policy organization committed to advancing economic justice and racial equity within financial systems), researchers found the City of Chicago issued over 3.6 million vehicle-related tickets in 2017. This was more, per capita, than issued by New York City or Los Angeles in that year. The majority of tickets issued (54 percent) were for nonmoving violations, such as expired parking meters or missing city stickers. City tickets are so numerous they make up a significant portion of revenue; in 2016, tickets and fines brought in roughly $264 million (or 7 percent of the city’s operating budget).

On top of that, tickets are 40 percent more likely to be issued within ZIP codes where there are more low- and moderate-income residents—making ticketing more likely to happen to people who can’t afford to pay.