November 29, 2007
The nation’s foreclosure crisis is metastasizing, and communities are in harm’s way as property values and tax bases decline and crime increases.
In the third quarter, there were 635,000 foreclosure filings, a 30 percent increase from the previous quarter and nearly double from a year ago, according to RealtyTrac, a national real estate information service. That works out to one for every 196 households. Michigan and Ohio, which were hit early and hard by a combination of economic weakness and reckless lending, continue to reel. Foreclosures rose last year in Colorado, Georgia and Texas and are now surging in California, Nevada, Arizona and Florida. In those states unsustainable mortgages are at the root of the problem.
The Bush administration has been far too slow to respond, with some officials apparently worried that helping today’s troubled borrowers might encourage future borrowers to take on too much debt. That misses a critical point: much of this crisis can be traced to lenders’ failure to vet borrowers and the government’s failure to regulate the industry. And it misses an even bigger point: unless something is done quickly, whole communities, not just people who lose their homes, will suffer.
Foreclosed properties damage the value of nearby homes and the tax bases of municipalities. There is also a strong correlation between foreclosures and crime. For every one percentage point increase in a neighborhood’s foreclosure rate, violent crime rises 2.3 percent, according to a recent study by Dan Immergluck of the Georgia Institute of Technology and Geoff Smith of Woodstock Institute, a research and advocacy organization in Chicago.
Reports from Cleveland, Atlanta and the sprawl around Los Angeles and Sacramento — from low-income city neighborhoods to middle-class suburbs — all tell a similar story: when vacancies appear, so do looters, vagrants, prostitutes and drug dealers. In Cleveland’s inner city, it takes 72 hours for a vacated house to be looted, a community activist told CNN recently, with lootings often followed by violent crime. In the suburbs, the descent may be slower, beginning with graffiti and vandalism and moving to gang activity and other crime.
Police departments may not be able to keep up, in part because foreclosures are projected to strain municipal budgets. Neighborhood watch groups are quickly overwhelmed. The United States Conference of Mayors met this week to discuss the impact of foreclosures. Based on the mayors’ experience, their estimates of the number of coming foreclosures, and the damage inflicted on community life, were grimmer than projections from the federal government and the housing industry. The question is whether their concerns will be heeded.
As more foreclosures take their toll, the need becomes ever more obvious for a comprehensive, national effort to avert evictions. Last week, Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson Jr. wisely shifted his position on loan modifications, endorsing the idea that some at-risk loans should be modified en masse rather than on an inefficient one-by-one basis. If Mr. Paulson backs up his new stance with a plan of action, the socio-economic costs of foreclosures may yet be contained.